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 Co-ordinating Conjunctions

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مُساهمةموضوع: Co-ordinating Conjunctions   08/12/09, 04:03 am

Co-ordinating Conjunctions

You use a co-ordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a co-ordinating conjunction:


Lilacs and violets are usually purple.

In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns.


This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West.

In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses.


Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.

Here the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends."

Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while."

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction:


After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.

The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause "After she had learned to drive."


If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.

Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause "If the paperwork arrives on time."


Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed.

The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause "when his computer crashed."


Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.

In this sentence, the dependent clause "because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs" is introduced by the subordinating conjunction "because."

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "so...as," and "whether...or." (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.)

The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions:


Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.

In this sentence, the correlative conjunction "both...and" is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: "my grandfather" and "my father".


Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop.

Here the correlative conjunction "either...or" links two noun phrases: "a Jello salad" and "a potato scallop."


Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school.

Similarly, the correlative conjunction "whether ... or" links the two infinitive phrases "to go to medical school" and "to go to law school."


The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.

In this example the correlative conjunction "not only ... but also" links the two noun phrases ("the school" and "neighbouring pub") which act as direct objects.

Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.

An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections:


Ouch, that hurt!

Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today.

Hey! Put that down! What is a Pronoun?

A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.

Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

Subjective Personal Pronouns

A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they."

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:


I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.

You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.

He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.

When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.

After many years, they returned to their homeland.

We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.

It is on the counter.

Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?

Objective Personal Pronouns

An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun:


Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.

The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced" and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with."


After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.

The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw."


The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, "Our leader will address you in five minutes."

In this sentence, the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address."


Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.

Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet."


Give the list to me.

Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to."


I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.

Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to."


Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.

Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see."

Possessive Personal Pronouns

A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their."

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:


The smallest gift is mine.

Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement.


This is yours.

Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement.


His is on the kitchen counter.

In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence.


Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.

In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence.


Ours is the green one on the corner.

Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:


This must not continue.

Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue."


This is puny; that is the tree I want.

In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.


Three customers wanted these.

Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted."

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.

"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.

The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:


Which wants to see the dentist first?

"Which" is the subject of the sentence.


Who wrote the novel Rockbound?

Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence.


Whom do you think we should invite?

In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite."


To whom do you wish to speak?

Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to."


Who will meet the delegates at the train station?

In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet."


To whom did you give the paper?

In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to."


What did she say?

Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."

Relative Pronouns

You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.


You may invite whomever you like to the party.

The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite."


The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.

In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote." This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate."


In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.

In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers."


Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.

Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke."


The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.

In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate."


I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.

Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:


Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.

Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited."


The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.

In this example, "everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown."


We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.

In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated."


Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.

Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found."


Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.

In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."


Give a registration package to each.

Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."

Reflexive Pronouns

You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.

The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:


Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.

The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.

After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.

Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.

Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.

Intensive Pronouns

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:


I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.

The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.

They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.

Written by Heather MacFadyen

Making Subjects and Verbs Agree

This handout gives you several guidelines to help your subjects and verbs agree.

1. When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, use a plural verb.

She and her friends are at the fair.

2. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, use a singular verb.

The book or the pen is in the drawer.

3. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb.

The boy or his friends run every day.

His friends or the boy runs every day.

4. Doesn't is a contraction of does not and should be used only with a singular subject. Don't is a contraction of do not and should be used only with a plural subject. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. With these pronouns, the contraction don't should be used.

He doesn't like it.

They don't like it.

5. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. The verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.

One of the boxes is open

The people who listen to that music are few.

The team captain, as well as his players, is anxious.

The book, including all the chapters in the first section, is boring.

The woman with all the dogs walks down my street.

6. The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb.

Each of these hot dogs is juicy.

Everybody knows Mr. Jones.

Either is correct.

7. Nouns such as civics, mathematics, dollars, measles, and news require singular verbs.

The news is on at six.

Note: the word dollars is a special case. When talking about an amount of money, it requires a singular verb, but when referring to the dollars themselves, a plural verb is required.

Five dollars is a lot of money.

Dollars are often used instead of rubles in Russia.

8. Nouns such as scissors, tweezers, trousers, and shears require plural verbs. (There are two parts to these things.)

These scissors are dull.

Those trousers are made of wool.

9. In sentences beginning with there is or there are, the subject follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows.

There are many questions.

There is a question.

10. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as: group, team, committee, class, and family.

The team runs during practice.

The committee decides how to proceed.

The family has a long history.

My family has never been able to agree.

In some cases, a sentence may call for the use of a plural verb when using a collective noun.

The crew are preparing to dock the ship.

This sentence is referring to the individual efforts of each crew member. The Gregg Reference Manual provides excellent explanations of subject-verb agreement (section 10: 1001).

11. Expressions such as with, together with, including, accompanied by, in addition to, or as well do not change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too.

The President, accompanied by his wife, is traveling to India.

All of the books, including yours, are in that box.

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Copyright ©1995-2009 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط].

The Writing Lab & OWL at Purdue University care about accessiblity and content quality. Contact [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] to share your comments and concerns. The OWL at Purdue now conforms to W3C.org-validated XHTML 1.0 Strict and CSS 2.0 standards. Additionally, the site passes the Cynthia Says test for ADA Section 508 compliance. We also recommend updating your Web browser to the very latest version available (the OWL at Purdue recommends the free, open-source Mozilla Firefox). Please [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] you encounter.

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Writing Numbers

Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for other numbers:

Words

over two pounds

six million dollars

after thirty-one years

eighty-three people

Figures

after 126 days

only $31.50

6,381 bushels

4.78 liters

Here are some examples of specific situations.

Days and Years

December 12, 1965 or 12 December 1965

A.D. 1066

in 1900

in 1971-72 or in 1971-1972

the eighties, the twentieth century

the 1980's or the 1980s

Time of Day

8:00 A.M. (or) a.m. (or) eight o'clock in the morning

4:30 P.M. (or) p.m. (or) half-past four in the afternoon

Addresses

16 Tenth Street

350 West 114 Street

Identification Numbers

Room 8

Channel 18

Interstate 65

Henry VIII

Page and Division of Books and Plays

page 30

chapter 6

in act 3, scene 2 (or) in Act III, Scene ii

Decimals and Percentages

a 2.7 average

13 1/4 percent

.037 metric ton

Large Round Numbers

four billion dollars (or) $4 billion

16,500,000 (or) 16.5 million

Notes on Usage

Repeat numbers in legal or commercial writing.

The bill will not exceed one hundred (100) dollars.

Numbers in series and statistics should be consistent.

two apples, six oranges, and three bananas

NOT: two apples, 6 oranges, and 3 bananas

115 feet by 90 feet (or) 115' x 90'

scores of 25-6 (or) scores of 25 to 6

The vote was 9 in favor and 5 opposed

Write out numbers beginning sentences.

Six percent of the group failed.

NOT: 6% of the group failed.

Use a combination of figures and words for numbers when such a combination will keep your writing clear.

Unclear: The club celebrated the birthdays of 6 90-year-olds who were born in the city. (may cause the reader to read '690' as one number.)

Clearer: The club celebrated the birthdays of six 90-year-olds who were born in the city.

Legal Information

Copyright ©1995-2009 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط].

The Writing Lab & OWL at Purdue University care about accessiblity and content quality. Contact [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] to share your comments and concerns. The OWL at Purdue now conforms to W3C.org-validated XHTML 1.0 Strict and CSS 2.0 standards. Additionally, the site passes the Cynthia Says test for ADA Section 508 compliance. We also recommend updating your Web browser to the very latest version available (the OWL at Purdue recommends the free, open-source Mozilla Firefox). Please [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] you encounter.

Copyright ©1995-2009 by [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] & [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]




I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new car, eh?"

I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high!
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