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المساهمات : 1724
نقاط التميز : 834
طالب بقسم : English department
السنة الدراسية : third year
العمر : 26
الدولة : Syria
البرج : الجوزاء
البرج الصيني : الحصان
الجنس : انثى

مُساهمةموضوع: CONNECTORS   11/12/09, 06:50 am

CONNECTORS

Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in

brackets.



1 Examples: (making contrasts)

Although[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] (neutral)/Even though (more emphatic)/Though

(less formal) he had a sprained ankle (or he had

sprained his ankle/his ankle was sprained), he went

out for a walk.

In spite of/Despite having a sprained ankle/having

sprained his ankle, he went out for a walk.

In spite of/Despite[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] his sprained ankle, he went out for a

walk.

In spite of/Despite his ankle being sprained, he went out

for a walk.

He had a sprained ankle, but he went out for a walk.

He had a sprained ankle/He had sprained his ankle/His

ankle was sprained. However (neutral)/Nevertheless

(formal)/Nonetheless[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] (formal)/All the same (less

formal)/Yet (less formal)/Still (less formal)/Even so

(less formal), he went out for a walk.

He had a sprained ankle/He had sprained his ankle/His

ankle was sprained. He went out for a walk, though

(informal)/however/ nevertheless/all the same/nonetheless.



a It was snowing heavily, but they went on climbing. (despite)

b He is very poor, but he is happy. (although)

c Despite being caught driving dangerously, he was not fined.

(all the same)

d The sea was very rough. Still, they went sailing. (in spite of)

e I know you don’t love me; but, even so, I’ll marry you.

(even though)





2 Examples: (making contrasts)

However[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] hard/No matter how hard (more formal) you try, you

will never be able to do it.

Even though/Even if you try hard, you will never be able to

do it.

It does not matter how hard you try, you will never be able

to do it.

Although you try hard, you will never be able to do it.

Much (adverb) as/though I loved him, I had to leave him.

Although I loved him a lot, I had to leave him.

Angry (adjective) as/though I was, I did not tell them

anything.

Although I was angry, I did not tell them anything.

Some people who are not happy with what they possess firmly

believe in the American dream, as it evokes the things they

would like to have. Despite this, it is just a dream.

Some people who are not happy with what they possess firmly

believe in the American dream, as it evokes the things they

would like to have. For all that, it is just a dream.



a Although she was terrible ill, she did not stay in bed.

(ill though)

b It does not matter how much money you give him, he will not

accept. (even though)

c Although it is fast, I won’t buy it. (fast as)

d Despite my admiration for him, I recognise that he is

a bit selfish. (much as)

e Everyone is worried about the scandal; but, in spite of

all its implications, I think it’ll do us some good. (for all)





3 Examples: (adding)

I don’t feel like dancing, and I’m also very exhausted.

I don’t feel like dancing. Also, I’m very exhausted.

I don’t feel like dancing. Besides[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], I’m very exhausted.

I don’t feel like dancing. In addition, I’m very exhausted.

I don’t feel like dancing, and what’s more I’m very

exhausted. (informal)

She works at the bank around the corner. Besides, she does

the household chores.

In addition to working at the bank around the corner, she

does the household chores.

They not only fined him, but also withdrew his driving licence.

They fined him and, on top of that, they withdrew his

driving licence.

In addition to being fined, his driving licence was withdrawn.

We must bear in mind both the costs and the benefits (that) we

can obtain from them.

On the one hand, we must bear in mind the costs. On the other

(hand), the benefits we can obtain from them.

We must bear in mind the costs. On the other hand, the

benefits we can obtain from them.



a The layman will not understand these instructions, and some

experts might also find some difficulties interpreting them.

(moreover)

b These fairy cakes are not only homemade, but they also have

the best-quality ingredients. (besides)

c First, we must consider the fact that this year’s income is

lower than last year’s; then, that we are working harder

than last year. (on the one hand, on the other)

d As well as being well-trained for the post, she is beautiful.

(in addition to)

e I submit it to you for your approval. I should like to add that

I do not mind[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] your carrying out any changes that you consider

necessary. (furthermore)





4 Examples: (expressing the result or consequence of something)

As we know them through and through, they can’t deceive us.

We know them through and through, so they can’t deceive us.

Since the management of the company have been raising

funds illegally during the last few years, they will be

taken to court.

The management of the company have been raising funds

illegally during the last few years. Therefore/

Consequently/For this reason/ As a result/As a

consequence/In consequence, they will be taken to court.

The management of the company have been raising funds

illegally during the last few years. They will therefore

be taken to court.

The management of the company have been raising funds

illegally during the last few years. Thus (very formal)/

So (less formal)/Hence (very formal) they will be taken

to court.

The management of the company have been raising funds

illegally during the last few years, with the result/

consequence that they will be taken to court.



a As we have spent all our money, we can’t buy the train

tickets. (so)

b Since they have violated our civil rights, we should like to

lodge a complaint. (therefore)

c As he has broken his promise twice, they will no longer trust

him. (with the result that)

d They were fined because they were driving too fast. (in

consequence)

e He did not pass me for failing to write the essay on

Shakespeare. (for this reason)





5 Examples: (expressing the cause or reason of something)

She loves pasta, so she cooks it very often.

She cooks pasta very often, as/since/because/for (very formal)

she loves it.

As/Since/Because she loves pasta, she cooks it very often.

She had an injured leg, so she could not walk properly.

She couldn’t walk properly because of/on account of (formal)/

owing to[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] (formal) her injured leg. (But She couldn’t walk

properly because she had an injured leg.)

The cause of his illness was that he did not eat enough food.

His illness was due to[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] malnutrition/lack of food.

The chairwoman has not come today, so we will have to put

the meeting off.

Seeing (that/as[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]) the chairwoman has not come today, we will

have to put the meeting off.

If they hadn’t helped us, we wouldn’t have finished painting

the house in time for the wedding day.

We finished painting the house in time for the wedding day

thanks to their help.

We couldn’t contact you, so we left a message for you.

The reason[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] (why/that) we left a message for you was that

we couldn’t contact you.

We couldn’t contact you. This is (the reason) why we left a

message for you.

We couldn’t contact you, which is why we left a message for

you.

We left a message for you because we couldn’t contact you.

They were very negligent, so they had to shut down.

They had to shut down as a result of/through their negligence.

They had to shut down because they were very negligent.



a It made my mouth water, so I ate it. (as)

b They tried to ridicule me, so I left. (because)

c He is too ill to move/to be moved. (because of)

d The document was badly written, so I didn’t sign it. (the

reason)

e If I hadn’t used your protective cream, I would have got

sunburnt. (thanks to)





6 Revision exercise.

a He is too short to be a basketball player. (because)

b Although I approve of parties, I can’t let you give one

tonight. (much as)

c As you have not performed your duties, you will be expelled

from the club. (consequently)

d ‘However fast I ran, I was always in the same place,’ she

dreamt. (although)

e His father has died, so he is crying his heart out. (owing to)

f These are the rules, but there are exceptions. (nevertheless)

g I neither love you nor I want to see you again. (what’s more)

h Majorca is a paradise for tourists; this is the consequence of

its popularity. (hence)

i The cause of his death was a heart attack. (due to)

j As our business is going from bad to worse, we will have to

close down. (as a result)

k Many people are dying from lack of food in the Third World

every day. (on account of®Many people are dying in the

Third World every day...)

l We will have to work hard at it because time is pressing on.

(so)

m No matter how much you hate them, you will have to live with

them. (even if)

n We will have to take sterner measures, since the unemployment

rate has increased. (thus)

o You have failed all your exams, so we will not buy you the bike

we promised. (since)

p The lack of discipline was the reason they lost the

battle. (through)

q Even though he was happy, he felt lonely at times. (happy

though)

r In spite of being clever with his hands, he couldn’t fix

it. (clever as)

s We saw many paratroopers. They were armed to the teeth,

too. (besides)

t The padlock I bought was not big enough for the gate. (but)

u He could not live without her, so he consented to all her

wishes. (for)

v We have considered your proposal thouroughly, but we are afraid

to tell you that we cannot assent to it. (however)

w We were in a hurry, so we didn’t wait for them. (the reason)

x Nobody dared to dissent from the decision of the prime

minister, but she did. (all the same)

y If it hadn’t been for her, I would have drowned. (thanks to)

z Although she had told him that she would always be true to him,

she wasn’t. (in spite of)





7 Examples: (ways of expressing an opinion)

I think (that) the government should do something about

inflation.

In my opinion/To my mind/In my view/To me (informal)/To my way

of thinking/As far as I am concerned/If you ask me (informal)/

From my point of view/From my viewpoint/As I see it/The way I

see it, the government should do something about inflation.

Personally/For my part, I think (that) the government should

do something about inflation.

I think (that) the unemployment rate has fallen.

As far as I know/As far as I am aware/To (the best of) my

knowledge/For all I know, the unemployment rate has fallen.



a I reckon we could do without them. (to me)

b I imagine she just wanted to impress you. (if you ask me)

c I think they have divorced. (to the best of my knowledge)

d I am of the opinion that men and women should be treated

equally. (in my opinion)

e I suppose you have dazzled them with your beauty and good

manners. (as I see it)





8 Examples: (reaching conclusions)

If we consider everything, this business is profitable.

Taking everything into account/consideration[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], this business

is profitable.

Taking account of everything, this business is profitable.

All in all, the business is profitable.

Briefly/In brief/In conclusion/In short/(To put it) in a

nutshell/Summarising/Summing up/To sum up, this business is

profitable.

You shouldn’t talk ill about your wife. You must bear in mind

that she is your wife.

You shouldn’t talk ill about your wife. After all, she’s your

wife/She’s your wife(,) after all.



a They haven’t come tonight, but we mustn’t forget they are

very busy. (after all)

b All things considered, a remedy to prevent tooth decay will

be available soon. (all in all)

c Despite that, she’s paid the bill. (after all)

d If we take everything into account, we cannot disregard all

they have done for us. (in short)

e Therefore, we can come to the conclusion that the government

should do away with this law. (to sum up)





9 Examples: (organising the sequence of events, facts and so

forth)

First (of all)/In the first place/Firstly,...

In the second place/Second(ly),...

In the third place/Third(ly),...

Then/Next/After that,...

Finally/Lastly/In the end/Last of all,...

To begin with/To start with/For a start,...

To end with/To finish with/To conclude with,...



a We had an increase in sales last year. (in the first place)

b The raw material was cheaper. (in the second place)

c The labour force was very efficient. (in the third place)

d The new machinery was very productive. (in the next place)

e And we had to pay fewer taxes. (to end with)





10 Examples: (giving examples)

In this region, you can find cobras, vipers, etc. (full

form: et cetera)

In this region, you can find cobras, vipers, and so on/forth[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط].

In this region, you can find cobras, vipers, and so on and

so forth.

Some snakes in this region are poisonous. For example/

For instance[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], cobras and vipers.

Some snakes in this region are poisonous, such as/like

(less formal) cobras and vipers.

Some snakes in this region are poisonous. As a case in point,

we can mention cobras and vipers/We can mention cobras and

vipers, as a case in point.

Some snakes in this region are poisonous. The cobra is a case

in point/A case in point is the cobra.

I like cakes, biscuits, sweets(,) and similar things.

I like cakes, biscuits, sweets(,) and the like[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]. (informal)

We will need, for example, a million pounds to carry out

the project.

We will need, (let us) say, a million pounds to carry out

the project.



a We need some new furniture in the house: a table for the

dining room, two bedside tables, etc. (for instance)

b There are animals which are in danger of extinction. Amongst

them, we can mention the whale. (such as)

c You will have to employ, for instance, twenty men to do the

job. (say)

d A relevant matter to what we are talking about is the increase

in violence on our streets. (a case in point)

e The bets you can make are as follows: £5, £10, £15, £20,

etc, etc. (and so and so forth)





____________________

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Although, even though and though are followed by a subject

plus a verb; in spite of and despite (more formal), by a

noun, pronoun or gerund. In spite of the fact (or despite

the fact) is used in the same way as although: In spite

of/Despite the fact (that) he had a sprained ankle/he had

sprained his ankle/his ankle was sprained, he went out for

a walk. They may also come after the main clause: He went

out for a walk, although he had a sprained ankle.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Notwithstanding is a very formal alternative to despite

(preposition) or however (adverb):

Notwithstanding the drop in sales, we should continue

with the same policy/The drop in sales notwithstanding,

we should continue with the same policy.

He knew of the many dangers which were awaiting him,

but he proceeded with the plan notwithstanding.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Nonetheless may also be written none the less.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] However and no matter how are followed by and adjective or

an adverb.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Moreover and furthermore are formal alternatives to besides.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Omit I should like to add that I do not mind.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] These words are followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Grammars sometimes say that due to should be used after the

verb be; but, in practice, some people do not follow this

rule: She hasn’t come today due to her bad cold.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] As is colloquial.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] See unit 20, section 13.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Note the following:

Taking into account/consideration that the business

is profitable, we must invest in it.

We have to take your travelling expenses into account/

consideration.

We have to take into account/consideration your

travelling expenses.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] In spoken English, we sometimes use and/or whatever (else),

and whatnot and and what have you instead of and so on/

forth: In this region, you can find cobras, vipers and

whatever (else)/and whatnot/and what have you.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Eg (from Latin exempli gratia) is another alternative to

give examples, but it normally occurs in written English:

Some snakes in this region are poisonous; eg/e.g., cobras

and vipers.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] A less usual alternative: I like cakes, biscuits, sweets, and

such like.
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المساهمات : 69
نقاط التميز : 14
طالب بقسم : English
السنة الدراسية : 3rd year
العمر : 28
الدولة : SYRIA_IDLEB
البرج : الحمل
البرج الصيني : التِنِّين
الجنس : ذكر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: CONNECTORS   12/12/09, 03:27 am

THANKS ALo0o [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] 0o0o0o0o0o0o0o0o0o00ot
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